俄罗斯和中国两国官媒关于上海合作组织反恐报道新闻媒体框架的构建

来源: www.sblunwen.com 作者:vicky 发布时间:2019-04-18 论文字数:27854字
论文编号: sb2019032211300825598 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
This paper is a research paper on news media,Based on the framing theory, this thesis examines the framing of anti-terroristic direction within Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) by government media of Russia and China, represented by Rossiiskaya
This paper is a research paper on news media,The media have become main sources of information for people. It is essential to identify how  media  frame  news.  The  news  media  often  reframe  the  event  by emphasizing different attributes of the event, consciously or unconsciously, in order to keep the story alive and fresh. Different media outlets have various cover of high-profile news stories. One of such stories is Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). 

Chapter One Literature Review

1.1 Background Introduction on SCO
The creation of Shanghai Cooperation Organization has determined the need to solve problems related to regional security and interstate relations. After Soviet Union disintegration, the leaders of new independent states had to negotiate territorial and border disputes with China. That was example of Chinese desire to have stability and friendly relations with the bordering countries. The involvement of Russia into these negotiations indicated that the above countries still considered the important role of Russia in the region. For China it meant moving forward alongside with Russia.
The relationship between post Soviet countries in Central Asia is complex and ambiguous. The system of interstate relations in Central Asia (Kazakhstan – Tajikistan –  Kyrgyzstan  –  Uzbekistan  -Turkmenistan)  is  based  not  only  on  legal  and administrative, economic and political structures of post-Soviet time, but also on the more ancient cultural, civilizational and economic components. (Miroshnikov, 2000). Chinese  factor  in  Central Asia  has  been  and  remains  one  of  the  key  in  the  trade- economic, investment, transport and energy cooperation. China aims to fight against the "Islamic" extremism in the first place, which carries a threat to the stability and territorial integrity of North-Western China. The main value of Central Asia for China is the economic sphere, including its energy security. Therefore China is now actively building up multilateral and bilateral cooperation within the SCO (Titarenko, 2012). 
Signing  the  “Treaty  of  Deepening  Military  Trust  in  Border  Regions”  in  1996 marked the formation of Shanghai Five. Further steps included examination of mutual interests focusing on transnational security issues, in particular— terrorism— emerging in the late 1990s. After joining of Uzbekistan in 2001, Shanghai Five was renamed into Shanghai Cooperation Organization. 
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1.2 Framing Theory
This study is based on the framing theory of mass communication. Framing is a process of selecting and emphasizing certain aspects of experience or ideas and making them more salient. The main contributor to the theory of framing is Goffman. Goffman (1974) believes that people make some efforts in order to project their own experience and to make sense of the world around them. There are special interpretive schemes, the so- called "primary frames". They allow to refer the received information to the right category, and endow it with meaning.
The theory proposed by Goffman, is based on the fact that communicators present the information in the way that it appeals to the minds of people. It is not the deliberate intention of the journalists to deceive readers. Media frames are important tools for effective presenting relatively complex issues in an accessible way for the audience because they use common cognitive schema. By highlighting the specific topic of an eventor  situation,  media  frame  affects  the  evaluation  of  the  audience  and  its consequences, as well as encourage politicians and citizens to a specific action.
One of the first researches in the field of media framing effects was Iyengar, who described the effects of the agenda establishment. Iyengar (2008) described how mass media influence the public opinion. The result of this research was the proof that the media information forces people to change their opinions, for example, it may be useful in carrying out political campaigns.
Framing starts with an attitude toward an object. The framing theory can be used for effective communication in all fields of media and other organizations. It is mainly applied in understanding media effects. Effective communication among large audience can be done with well-organized framing of meanings and issues.
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Chapter Two Methodology

2.1Content Analysis
The  study  relies  on  the  content  analysis  of  the  newspaper  coverage  of  anti- terroristic cooperation between China and Russia within SCO. Content analysis is very efficient and unobstructive in analyzing message content to produce valid results. The content analysis is very useful as it suits both quantitative and  qualitative analyses; through content analysis it is possible to achieve proximity to text that can alternate between  specific  categories  and  analyzes  the  encoded  form  of  the  text;  it  gives  an insight into the use of language; unlike discourse analysis, it is a fact-based research method. (Weaver, 2007). Thoughts on agenda setting, framing, and priming, "content analysis takes texts and analyses, shortens and interrogates them in a concise manner by  using  both  pre-existing categories  and  emerging  topics  to  generate  or  validate theory". Only articles related to SCO military cooperation were selected. The articles were analyzed based on headlines and texts. The data were collected from relevant articles in the selected newspapers using purposive sampling technique and analyzed using content analysis.
The unit of analysis for this investigation was the individual newspaper article. The sample consisted of two government mouthpieces: People's Daily (Russia), and Rossiiskaya Gazeta. They were chosen because they represent the government positions on the topic. People's daily is one of the leading newspapers in the world and the most influential newspaper in China. Over thousand of journalists are working for it in the different countries. China Daily provides news articles in different languages. For the language convenience China Daily (Russia) was chosen for this research. Rossiyskaya Gazeta is a Russian government daily newspaper that publishes official statements and documents of the State.
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2.2Low Publication Rate
Specific  distributions  of  news  stories  of  the  two  newspapers  in  10  years  time period are summarized in the Table 1. The procedure of data collection produced a total of  70  articles  involving  anti-terroristic  issues.  Rossiiskaya  gazeta  had  a  total  of  19 articles  devoted  to  anti-terroristic  issues,  which  constitute  27%  of  all  investigated articles. The highest publication rate was in 2007 (n=8) . It was the year of the first Peace  Mission  military  exercises  conducted  by  all  six  SCO  members.  Other  years  stably show low publication rate, with 2012 and 2015 years when no news stories were published. China Daily (Russia) had the total of 51 news stories (72% ) starting from 2011 to 2017 with the peak publications in 2012-2014 years and sharp increase in the following years, with no publications in 2015 year.

Rossiiskaya Gazeta started to cover military cooperation within SCO since 2007, after the first Peace mission was held by all SCO members. However after 2007 the coverage sharply decreased to 1-2 articles each year, therefore the newspaper did not focus on anti-terroristic cooperation within SCO. 
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Chapter Three Frames of the Three Newspapers ............................19
3.1 Low Publication Rate ............................19
3.2 Key Frames of the SCO Anti-terroristic .........................20
3.3 Issue Frames of the SCO Anti-terroristic Cooperation of the Two Newspapers ..............23
Chapter Four Findings .....................................30
4.1 Frames of SCO Anti-terroristic Cooperation by the Two Newspapers ................30
4.2 The Main Aim of Peace Mission in the Two Newspapers ..........................32
4.3 Coverage of the Threat from the Third Countries ........................33

Chapter Four Findings

4.1 Frames of SCO Anti-terroristic Cooperation by the Two Newspapers
This study examines the anti-terroristic cooperation within SCO countries in two government media of China and Russia by mostly comparing the total number of news stories and the news frames. The result of this framing analysis shows several important findings.
The newspapers produced different amounts of articles, directly related to SCO anti-terroristic  cooperation,  within  the  data  collection period.  Chinese  newspaper, China Daily, produced 51 articles. Meanwhile, Russian newspaper, Rossiiskaya Gazeta produced 19. The overall of 70 SCO anti-terroristic cooperation -related articles were analyzed.  This clearly indicates that China Daily (Russia) produced more SCO anti-terroristic cooperation related articles within the chosen period of data collection. There might be some other articles that are indirectly related to anti-terroristic cooperation or Peace Mission, but due to their indirect relation, only those directly related to SCO anti-terroristic  cooperation  were  selected.  This  is  the  reason  why  researchers  used  the purposive sampling techniques in this study. The overall 70 newspaper articles (N=70) were analyzed. The number of all the stories of two newspapers is relatively low which shows  that  military  cooperation  within  SCO  was  not  among  priorities  for  these government newspapers.
Among issue frames were fighting three evil forces and fighting against the third countries;  SCO positive/negative influence on the region; SCO is  non-intervention, non-anti-NATO bloc. Table 4 in the section 4.3 clearly indicates that almost half (47%) of the articles published by the China Daily (Russia) portrays Peace Mission in the context of fighting three evil forces, with only 6% of articles pointing at fighting the third  countries. Almost  half  of  articles  in  Rossiiskaya  gazeta  also  depicted  Peace Mission as fighting with extremism, separatism and terrorism (47%).
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Discussion
The overall publication rate during ten years were very low in all two   newspapers. Rossiiskaya gazeta and China Daily (Russia) have only positive coverage of SCO anti- terroristic impact on regional and international security. This is connected to a number of circumstances:  on  the  one  hand,  the  changing  military  and  political  situation  in Central Asia rises the issue of ensuring collective security. On the other hand, Chinese and  Russian  authorities  are  increasingly  in  favor  of  intensifying  the  anti-terroristic component. 
Nowdays Western media distorts the goals of China-Russian joint exercises by presenting  China-Russian  exercises  as  a  threat  to the  United  States  security  and neighboring countries. However, compare to other joint military exercises conducted by other countries, Chinese-Russian exercises are not offensive, they reflect the efforts of the two countries to protect world and regional stability. Rossiiskaya gazeta states that not Moscow nor Beijing are interested in the emergence of new blocs. China Daily highlights that the military cooperation between Russia and China meets the common aspirations of the people of the two countries, reflect the desire to forever strengthen the friendship and be reliable partners, good neighbors and true friends. In general, Rossiiskaya gazeta and China Daily (Russia) usually portray the main aim of  military cooperation within SCO as antiterroristic. Officially joint military counter-terrorism exercises of the SCO are not aimed against third countries, they are based on equality and cooperation. Apart from this anti-terroristic aim, there are articles in China Daily that also mention that Russia and China are not formally military allies and emphasize that their exercises are not directed against other countries. From the official point of view, the exercises are aimed only at mutual exchange of experience and the study of various techniques used in the partner's army. At the same time, among its fundamental principles is the prevention of illegal actions against the interests of member States. Nevertheless, China Daily (Russia) states that for several years Russia and China have been  preparing  their  armies  for  possible  joint  participation  in  large-scale  military operations and in case of any threat to SCO region, SCO country members will use the experience gained at the military exercises against the enemies.
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